Diabetes, Obesity and Testosterone

Does low testosterone cause obesity then the obesity cause diabetes? Type II diabetes mellitus is one of the most common metabolic diseases with high prevalence in most parts of the world and has been called a lifestyle disease. Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the body does not produce or is not able to utilize insulin effectively. Diabetes is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and microvascular complications.

Lack of Insulin

The absence of insulin leads to high levels of glucose circulating in blood between meals and can cause complications in various organs and systems. Treatment of diabetes mellitus includes both lifestyle modifications and various medications, depending on the severity of the disease. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is commonly treated with oral medications (e.g. metformin) in combination with insulin or glucose-lowering agents. In more serious situations, insulin therapy may be necessary. In addition to metformin, antidiabetic agents such as biguanides, thiazolidinediones, and alpha-glucosidase inhibitors either alone or in combination with metformin are also commonly prescribed. Most significant advances in the treatment of diabetes and glucose regulations are the discovery and development of incretin mimetics (GLP-1 analogues), which act directly on insulin secretion.

Endocrinology Diabetes low testosterone hrt
Low Testosterone and Diabetes

The combination of drugs which increase peripheral insulin sensitivity and incretin responses can reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia to a greater extent than any individual therapy. For this reason, patients at risk of macrovascular disease are advised to take a single agent to achieve glucose regulation for life. For example, clinical trials have suggested the use of pioglitazone (a PPAR [peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor]-γ agonist) in combination with glimepiride from the beginning of therapy to improve the response to treatment and to delay or prevent the development of drug resistance (Molitch et al. 2003). The problem with type 2 diabetes is that it can be silent for many years and only mildly symptomatic. It is important to detect pre-diabetes (a condition where people have impaired glucose tolerance but normal blood glucose levels) as it can progress to diabetes within a decade (Reaven et al., 1995)

 At the same time, type 2 diabetes is better managed when people are diagnosed early before complications develop. Scientific research has yet to show a definite way to prevent type 2 diabetes. However, there is good evidence that lifestyle changes, like weight loss and increased physical activity, can delay the onset of diabetes. The body is being shown to work in many different ways towards developing diabetes. One of those ways is low testosterone. Low testosterone or andropause creates a cascade effect, declining activity levels, estrogen skewed hormone balance, low motivation, and lack of drive. All of these lead to less healthy lifestyles for men. As this continues, men would start to put on fat, leading to higher estrogen levels, leading to more fat deposits, leading to insulin sensitivity issues, leading to more lipogenesis and early Type II symptoms.  As mentioned earlier, people with a diagnosis of pre-diabetes have a two- to threefold increased risk of developing diabetes and its complications. The rise in global diabetes is also linked to increasing rates of obesity.

This is due to both environmental and genetic factors. While genetics is not the sole cause, several studies have reported associations between polymorphisms and type 2 diabetes mellitus. There are an estimated 285 million people being affected by diabetes were to the fact that this causes 1.5 to 5 .people die annually from it and many more have to take prescriptions from doctors that help in keeping the disease in a controllable level. Although a cure is not yet available, a number of effective treatments to control high blood glucose levels are available.

Diabetes Mitigation

Some of these measures include lifestyle changes, physical exercises, oral or injectable medications, hormone replacement therapy (HRT/TRT), insulin injections, kidney transplants, and kidney dialysis. Although these approaches and medications have had beneficial effects on people with diabetes, many patients are still faced with some difficulty in administering them as control of glucose persists. Type 2 diabetes mellitus, which accounts for 90– 95% of all cases of diabetes, may qualify for special medical assistance under the Social Security disability insurance (SSDI) system. The contribution of Apolipoprotein CII (APOCII) in cell signaling, including roles of APOCII in insulin regulation, lipid transport, and cell survival, was also highlighted. APOCII is involved in lipid transport and the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis and metastasis (Carter 2010). This helps to outline how APOCII can influence other molecules in pathways linked to diet and obesity. We also highlighted a study published by Gimeno et al., (2010) which showed the positive association between APOCII gene polymorphisms and Parkinson’s disease.

This in turn suggests that APOCII gene polymorphisms play a role in the development of PD. In the lab, experiments have been conducted using mouse models to study VLDL as a mechanism regarding diabetes. The mice were fed with high fat diet (60%) to induce diabetes. When measuring plasma lipids, analysis has shown an increase in the concentration of triglycerides (TG) (2600%) and LDL-C (16%) and a decrease in HDL-C (22%), and to a lesser extent, LDL-C (31%). When the APOCII enzyme was blocked, these changes were significantly reversed: TG decreased (38%), HDL-C increased (16%) and LDL-C did not change significantly.

In conclusion, the experimental mice provided evidence that APOCII predicts the development of diabetes. To prolong the positive effects of APOCII and treat diabetes, the researchers proposed experiments using a new drug, OSI-906 (a potent and highly selective inhibitor of APOCII). The study demonstrated it’s inhibitory, antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic effects in APOCII knockout mice and in murine hepatoma cells. This is still a ways from production, but we believe that testosterone is the foundation for good health. Get tested for hormone levels regularly and seek out a specialist in Calgary like The Mas Clinic for help with endocrine issues.